ABAX - Adding value to global business

ABAX - Adding value to global business

Privacy Statement


Members of the ABAX Group are bound by data protection legislation in each of the various jurisdictions in which they operate (“Applicable Data Protection Law“) and they are committed to protecting your privacy. This policy sets out the basis on which Personal Data that members of the ABAX Group collect from you, or that you provide to a member of the ABAX Group, will be processed.

In the remainder of this Privacy Statement, “we” refers to one or more members of the ABAX Group and “us” and “our” is to be read accordingly.

The “ABAX Group” consists of Abax Corporate Services Ltd, a company incorporated in Mauritius with business registration number C06025366, whose registered office is at 6th Floor, Tower A, 1 CyberCity, Ebene, Mauritius, its ultimate holding body, all subsidiaries of its ultimate holding body and any corporate entity managed or controlled by any of those entities.

This Privacy Statement is a “privacy notice” for the purposes of Applicable Data Protection Law, and in particular the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR“), given by an ABAX entity when acting in its capacity as a data controller in relation to its collection and use of Personal Data.

Where Personal Data about you is collected and then used by a member of the ABAX Group under this Privacy Statement as the result of you engaging with an ABAX entity, the ABAX entity with whom you engage is the data controller in respect of that Personal Data. Where Personal Data about you is provided by someone else or is collected by an ABAX entity itself, this Privacy Statement will also apply to its collection and use and the ABAX entity collecting and using that Personal Data is the data controller in respect of it.

This Privacy Statement does not apply to the collection or use of Personal Data by an ABAX entity that is a data processor, except to the extent that its terms (or some of them) are incorporated into a relevant processing agreement, either expressly or by reference.

In this Privacy Statement, the phrase “those connected with you” refers to (a) your employees or other people who deal with us on your behalf, whether you are a client that is an individual, a corporate body or some other form of entity or organisation, or an investor in, or an owner of, a client and (b) those people who represent other entities or organisations that we might deal with, such as advisers, regulators, suppliers or anyone else that makes any form of enquiry in relation to us or our services.

Please read this Privacy Statement carefully to understand our practices regarding your Personal Data and how we will treat it.

If you have any queries regarding anything in this Privacy Statement, please contact our Data Protection Officer, whose contact details can be found at the end of this document.

Purpose of Data Protection

The purpose of data protection legislation is to protect the rights and privacy of individuals (“Data Subjects“) in respect of the Processing of Personal Data concerning them. “Personal Data” is any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (known as a “data subject”). A person is “identifiable” if he or she can be identified, directly or indirectly, not only by things such as a name or an identification number, but also by things such as location data or some factor specific to (for example) the physical, physiological or social identity of that person. More common examples of Personal Data include names, identification numbers, contact information, identity documents, medical records and photographic images. “Processing” covers any activity involving Personal Data and includes such things as the collection, recording, storage, adaptation, use, disclosure and destruction of Personal Data.

Each member of the ABAX Group will Process Personal Data in accordance with Applicable Data Protection Law.

Our Policies

We have policies and procedures that aim to ensure that all our staff, contractors and others that we work with and who Process any Personal Data held by us, or on our behalf, wherever in the world, are aware of, and abide by, their duties under Applicable Data Protection Law. All members of the ABAX Group abide by standards of data protection that are substantially the same as those set out in the GDPR, which requires among other things that Personal Data must be:

  1. processed lawfully, fairly and in a transparent manner;
  2. collected for lawful purposes that are clearly specified and only further processed for compatible purposes;
  3. relevant and limited to what is necessary for the purposes of the processing;
  4. accurate and kept up to date, with inaccurate Personal Data being erased or rectified without delay;
  5. kept for no longer than is necessary; and
  6. processed in a secure manner, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction or damage.

Whose Personal Data do we process?

Clients (and potential clients)

We have clients that are individuals and clients that are corporate bodies, including limited liability partnerships, government departments and agencies and other public bodies. Even where our clients are not themselves individuals, they will be represented by individuals and they may be owned by individuals and invested in by individuals. As a result, we will inevitably process Personal Data in the course of our relationships with those clients too.

As a potential client and then (if applicable) as a client, the Personal Data that we Process will include personal and/or professional contact details (addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses), copy identity documents and proofs of address, copy professional and educational certificates, details of bank accounts and/or other payment details, details of financial standing and investment objectives. If you are a potential client and then (if applicable) a client of our Private Wealth Services team, the Personal Data that we Process may additionally include details of family wealth, names, addresses and other personal details concerning family members and/or those employed by families or family members

In addition, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner, and for the same or similar purposes, to email and postal correspondence from or concerning you.

Investors, Legal and Beneficial Owners, Settlors, Protectors and Beneficiaries

We deal with individuals and various types of organisations that are connected with clients, such as owners and investors and beneficiaries,

As a person connected with a potential client and (if applicable) then a client that falls under this paragraph, the Personal Data that we Process about you will include personal and/or professional contact details (addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses), copy identity documents and proofs of address, copy professional and educational certificates and data to facilitate tax information exchange.

In addition, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner, and for the same or similar purposes, to email and postal correspondence from or concerning you.

Other Client-Connected People: Advisers and Regulators

We also deal with those organisations that provide professional advice or services to us or to our clients, those that supervise and regulate us and our clients, those that supply goods and services to us and our past, present and (in the case of job applicants) future staff.

As an “Other Client-Connected” person, the Personal Data that we Process about you will include personal and/or professional contact details (addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses) and, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner to email and postal correspondence.

Suppliers (and potential suppliers)

As a potential supplier and then (if applicable) as a supplier, the Personal Data that we Process will include personal and/or professional contact details (addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses), documents and other proofs of standing and reputation and details of bank accounts and/or other payment details.

In addition, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner, and for the same or similar purposes, to email and postal correspondence from or concerning you.

Potential employees

If you are an applicant for a job with us (a potential employee), the Personal Data that we Process about you will include:

  1. your name, address and contact details, including telephone numbers and email addresses;
  2. details of your qualifications, skills, experience and employment history;
  3. information about your current level of remuneration, including entitlement to benefits;
  4. whether or not you have a disability that we may need to make adjustments for during the recruitment process;
  5. information about your entitlement to reside and/or work in the place where you have applied for a job; and
  6. equal opportunity monitoring information, including information about your ethnic origin, sexual orientation, health and religion or beliefs.

In addition, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner, and for the same or similar purposes, to email and postal correspondence from or concerning you.

If your application for a job with us is successful, our retention of your Personal Data will be governed by our separate policy on staff Personal Data, which will be made available to you by our Human Capital department as part of your becoming a member of staff.

If your application for a job with us is successful, our retention of your Personal Data will be governed by our separate policy on staff Personal Data, which will be made available to you by our HR department as part of your becoming a member of staff.

Enquirers and visitors to our website

You may give us Personal Data by filling in a contact form on our website or by corresponding with us by email. In each of the above cases, the Personal Data that we Process will include personal and/or professional contact details (addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses) and, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner to email and postal correspondence. If you have stated contact preferences for service and/or jurisdiction updates and/or events that we may organise or participate in, we will also Process that information.

We will also automatically collect certain information each time you visit our website. This includes:

  1. technical information including the Internet Protocol (IP) address used to connect your computing device to the Internet, your browser type and version, time zone setting, operating system and platform;
  2. information about your visit which may include the pages viewed, page response times; and
  3. your country of location by reference to a look-up of your IP address against public sources.

Our website also uses cookies and/or similar technologies to collect and store certain information about your interaction with our website. For more information about how we use cookies see our Cookies Policy.

How we use the Personal Data we Process

Clients (and potential clients)

As a potential client, we will process Personal Data about you and those connected with you, for the purpose of carrying out our business and in order to:

  1. respond in our legitimate interests to your enquiries about our services and/or other requests;
  2. carry out due diligence or other “know-your-customer”, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing or anti-bribery checks in accordance with legal obligations to which we are subject or in our legitimate interests to satisfy our regulatory obligations and our own risk management procedures;
  3. conduct checks concerning credit worthiness and standing prior to entering into an agreement with you;
  4. take steps in our legitimate interests to prevent, detect or investigate crime, fraud, misconduct or any unlawful action or omission, whether or not relating to your enquiry and whether or not there is any suspicion of any illegality;
  5. enter into an agreement with you regarding the provision of services;
  6. verify and carry out financial transactions in relation to the provision of the services under the agreement with you;
  7. manage our infrastructure and business operations and to comply with policies and procedures that may be required by law or where necessary for our legitimate interest to satisfy other applicable industry regulation, guidelines or notices and/or that may have been put in place by us, including those relating to regulatory review and/or oversight, internal or external auditing, finance and accounting, billing and collections, IT systems, data and website hosting, training, testing and business continuity; and
  8. correspond with you concerning our present and future services and relevant news and service updates with your consent where required by law or otherwise in our legitimate interests provided these interests do not override your right to object to such communications.

If you become a client, we will continue to process Personal Data about you for such of the purposes described above as continue to be relevant. In addition, we will process Personal Data about you and those connected with you regarding the on-going provision of services, as described below. If you do not become a client, we will only keep Personal Data that you have made available to us if it is necessary for us to keep it for legitimate business purposes and/or as we are required to keep it by law or regulation.

If you do become a client, we will need to process Personal Data in order:

under the agreement entered into between you and us to:

  1. provide you with services and to administer and manage our relationship with you;
  2. carry out your instructions and to respond to enquiries made by you;
  3. conduct and verify ongoing credit worthiness and standing checks relevant to the agreement;
  4. recover any fees owed to us under our agreement with you;

under our legal obligations to:

  1. collect and use certain information, for example with regard to the ownership of assets and for the purpose of the automatic exchange of information concerning tax matters;
  2. carry out on-going due diligence or other “know-your-customer”, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing or anti-bribery checks;
  3. to comply with other applicable law and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we operate;

or in our legitimate interests:

  1. to manage our infrastructure and business and to further our business interests;
  2. to comply with policies and procedures under applicable professional regulation, guidelines or notices and/or that may have been put in place by us, including those relating to regulatory review and/or oversight, risk management, internal or external auditing, finance and accounting, billing and collections, IT systems, data and website hosting, training, testing and business continuity; and
  3. other purposes which we may notify you of from time to time, and obtaining your consent where necessary.

Investors, Legal and Beneficial Owners, Settlors, Protectors and Beneficiaries

If you are an investor in, or the legal or beneficial owner of, a client that is a corporate body, a partnership or an unincorporated association or body or if you are a settlor, protector or beneficiary of a trust or a founder, council member or a beneficiary of a foundation, you may be a person connected with a potential client and/or client and, as such, we will process Personal Data about you and those connected with you in order:

  1. to provide services to the client with which you are connected;

under our legal obligations to:

  1. collect and use certain information, for example with regard to the ownership of assets and for the purpose of the automatic exchange of information concerning tax matters;
  2. carry out on-going due diligence or other “know-your-customer”, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing or anti-bribery checks;
  3. to comply with other applicable law and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we operate;

or in our legitimate interests to:

  1. to manage our infrastructure and business and to further our business interests;
  2. to comply with policies and procedures under applicable professional regulation, guidelines or notices and/or that may have been put in place by us, including those relating to regulatory review and/or oversight, risk management, internal or external auditing, finance and accounting, billing and collections, IT systems, data and website hosting, training, testing and business continuity; and
  3. other purposes which we may notify you of from time to time, and obtaining your consent where necessary.

Other Client-Connected People: Advisers and Regulators

If you are a person that is connected with a client or a potential client by reason of being the accountant, lawyer, banker or other adviser to that client (or potential client) or if you are a person that carries out any supervisory or regulatory function in any jurisdiction in connection with any member of the ABAX Group or a client (or potential client) of any member of the ABAX Group, we may process Personal Data about you and those connected with you for the purpose of our legitimate interest in carrying out our business including in providing services to the client (or potential client) with which you are connected.

Suppliers (and potential suppliers)

As a potential supplier, we will process Personal Data about you and those connected with you, for the purpose of entering into and receiving services under a contract with you relevant to carrying out our business and in order to:

  1. respond to your enquiries about supplying goods or services to us;
  2. conduct checks concerning standing and reputation;
  3. enter into an agreement with you regarding the provision of services; and
  4. correspond with you concerning your present and future goods or services.

If you do become a supplier of ABAX Group, we will need to process Personal Data in order to:

  1. administer and manage our relationship with you;
  2. respond to enquiries made by you;
  3. carry out on-going checks in accordance with legal or regulatory obligations and our own risk management procedures;
  4. conduct and verify ongoing standing and reputation checks;
  5. pay for goods and services received;
  6. comply with legal or regulatory obligations, for example with regard to a regulator’s outsourcing policy; and
  7. for other purposes which we may notify you of from time to time, and obtaining your consent where necessary.

Potential employees

If you are an applicant for a job with us (a potential employee), we will process Personal Data about you in order, in our legitimate interests, to assess your application and to advance that application through our recruitment processes, including by making details of your application, including Personal Data, to relevant members of our management and of our Human Capital department, and to comply with policies and procedures under applicable professional regulation, guidelines or notices and/or that may have been put in place by us, relation to staff and recruitment.

Enquirers and visitors to our website

If you have completed a form on our website, making a new business enquiry or asking a general question, indicating the services and/or jurisdictions then we will process Personal Data about you for the purpose of our legitimate interest in responding to your enquiries and/or request for information.

Likewise, if you have contacted our marketing team by email, either via the website or independently, or otherwise with a media enquiry, we will process Personal Data about you on the same grounds in order to respond to your enquiries and/or request for information.

Further, if you leave a voicemail message with us, that message may be Processed in a similar manner, and for the same or similar purposes, to email and postal correspondence from or concerning you.

If you or someone who works for you has given us a business card at a conference or a business meeting, we will use the contact details on the card in connection with the specific purpose it was provided. Where the card is provided for the specific purpose of requesting our promotional update communications we may first, where permitted by Applicable Data Protection Law, send an email promptly after receiving the business card, to confirm the request, clarify its scope and provide for you to complete contact preferences.

We use information about visitors to our website in our legitimate interests for internal operations, to ensure that content is presented in the most effective manner for you and your computer and to keep our website safe and secure.

ABAX promotional updates and communications

Where permitted by law or otherwise with your prior consent, we will use Personal Data to provide you with promotional update communications about us or our services, and we may also invite you to tell us what your areas of interest are.

If you are on one of our contact lists for communications from members of the ABAX Group, you will be able to check and update your contact details, to change your preferences or to “unsubscribe” at any time either by following the links which appear at the end of all our marketing and promotional update communications or by contacting us through our website and we will ensure that your details and preferences or your request to “unsubscribe” are dealt with promptly. Even if you tell us that you do not want to receive marketing or promotional update communications from us, we still may have the right to process Personal Data for the purposes of providing the services and, in such cases, we will continue to process that Personal Data for those purposes.

We do not sell or otherwise pass on your contact details to any third party outside the ABAX Group for marketing purposes.

Who we share Personal Data with

We may share Personal Data with:

  1. Any other member of the ABAX Group that supports our processing of Personal Data under this policy. A full list of all the members of the ABAX Group can be found at www.abaxservices.com
  2. business partners, suppliers, affiliates, agents and/or sub-contractors for the performance of any agreement we enter into with you. They may assist us in providing the services we offer, processing transactions, fulfilling requests for information, receiving and sending communications, updating marketing lists, analysing data, providing IT and other support services or in other tasks, from time to time. These third parties will only use your information to the extent necessary to perform their functions.
  3. credit reference agencies for the purpose of assessing your credit standing where this is a condition of us entering into a contract with you.
  4. external networking sites. Our website contains plug-ins to such sites. If you are a member of one of those social networking providers and you are logged in while visiting our website the relevant social network provider may assign information to your social media account. By interacting with one of the plug-ins on our website by clicking the interaction button information that you visited our site may be shared with the relevant social networking provider and held as part of your separate social networking user account. You should read the privacy policies of your social networking provider for further information about their collection and use of your Personal Data.
  5. If we are under a duty to disclose or share your personal data in order to comply with any legal obligation, or in order to enforce or apply our terms of supply terms and other agreements with you; or to protect the rights, property, or safety of ABAX, our customers, or others. This includes exchanging information with other companies and organisations for the purposes of fraud protection and credit risk reduction.

Security and data retention

We have taken steps to apply appropriate technical and organisational measures to prevent the unauthorised or unlawful processing of Personal Data, and/or the accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, Personal Data. This includes but is not limited to using properly configured and maintained firewalls, encryption and anti-virus/malware protection on servers and laptops/PCs with emails scanned for viruses and spam. Our staff have an obligation to ensure that appropriate security measures are implemented at all times in accordance with the guidance set out in our information security and data protection policies and procedures.

As a general rule, ABAX’s IT tools and applications such as the e-mail system and the data/client/document management systems are administered by members of the ABAX’s IT team in Mauritius.

ABAX has retention policies in place to meet regulatory requirements and client obligations. We retain Personal Data for the duration of the services that we provide as necessary to meet our obligations under our contractual obligations to you, to identify issues or to issue and resolve legal proceedings. We also retain Personal Data beyond the duration of the services that we provide as necessary to meet our legal and regulatory obligations to retain such information under applicable law. We may also retain aggregate information beyond this time for statistical analysis and research purposes and to help us improve our services. Old media (PC and server disks, tapes, etc.) are stored and then destroyed using a reputable specialist organisation.

Retention periods are kept under review. There may be some cases in which we are obliged to delete Personal Data we process, such as the data having been processed in breach of the Applicable Data Protection Law or to comply with a legal obligation to delete it. In other cases, there may be no specific time limit applicable to the retention of particular Personal Data and, in determining how long particular Personal Data will be retained for, we will use criteria including whether:

  1. the data is no longer necessary for the purpose in relation to which it was collected;
  2. the data can, if required, be collected again without undue delay or difficulty.

We will not, as a general rule, seek or rely on your consent to process Personal Data about you. However, to the extent that we do on occasion rely on your consent in respect of particular Personal Data, we will cease processing that Personal Data by deleting it if you withdraw that consent at any time.

Likewise, where we rely on your consent to process “special category” Personal Data, we will cease processing that “special category” Personal Data by deleting it if you withdraw that consent at any time.

You do have the right to object to the processing of Personal Data by us on the grounds of performance of a legal task or our legitimate interest, but that objection must be on grounds relating to your particular situation. In such circumstance, we will stop processing the Personal Data in question unless:

  1. we can demonstrate compelling legitimate grounds for the processing, which override your interests, rights and freedoms of the individual; or
  2. the processing is for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.

If you do object to the processing of your Personal Data by us and, as a result, we stop processing it, we may not be able to continue to provide services to you in a particular manner or at all and we may, as a result, need to terminate our service agreement with you.

Where, for example, we process your Personal Data with your consent in order to send you promotional update communications about us or our services, if you withdraw that consent, we will not be able to send you such communications.

If, as an unsuccessful job applicant you ask us to retain your Personal Data, but you later change your mind and ask us to delete it, we will not be able to refer to your original application should a potentially suitable vacancy subsequently occur.

We will delete any Personal Data no longer required, and will do so in an appropriate and secure manner.

Data Location

ABAX stores data in Mauritius, on ABAX’s servers at its physically-secured premises in Mauritius, backed-up to an independently-certified third party data centre located in a different part of the island.

All premises and data centres used by ABAX for its IT infrastructure are secured by strong access control systems and only a limited number of staff members and, on occasion, reputable and trusted third party IT suppliers that are subject to appropriate data protection and confidential obligations, have supervised physical or remote access to ABAX’s IT infrastructure and systems.

Certain clients have portals and/or document repositories provided by ABAX, facilities for controlled secure access to documents and information to be shared between ABAX and the client in question and through which ABAX and the client in question can communicate. Such portals and document repositories are operated by ABAX in conjunction with third party service providers and client data is held (and backed-up) on ABAX servers hosted in independently-certified third party data centres.

ABAX’s CRM (customer relationship management) system is provided by Salesforce, an internationally-recognised service provider and client contact details (addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses) are held (and backed-up) in “the cloud” on servers hosted in European Commission’s list of countries ensuring an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedom of Data Subjects.

In certain cases, Personal Data may be transferred to other countries where ABAX maintains operations or where its service providers are located. Where these transfers are to be made outside the European Union, we will make sure that the receipt of the Personal Data has provided adequate safeguards, in accordance with the requirements of the GDPR by, for example, entering into appropriate European Commission-approved standard contractual clauses relevant to transfers between data controllers or between a data controller and a data processor.

In the case of transfers of Personal Data among members of the ABAX Group, all such members are subject to the internal data protection policies and procedures of the ABAX group, which are based on GDPR-compliance.

In the case of transfers of Personal Data to third parties that are located in a country that is not subject to an adequacy decision by the European Commission, we will only transfer your Personal Data to third parties that have been approved for use by the ABAX Group following due diligence and, in each case, provided that such third parties are the subject of contractual arrangements with us imposing, among other things, obligations on the third party to ensure that appropriate technical and organisational measures are implemented by it at all times to prevent the unauthorised or unlawful processing of Personal Data, and/or the accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, Personal Data, again consistent with the obligations set out in the European Commission-approved standard contractual clauses.

Your rights

You have a number of rights under the GDPR in relation to your Personal Data.

You have the right under certain circumstances to:

  1. have access to your Personal Data by making a “subject access request”;
  2. have your Personal Data corrected if it is wrong or, in certain circumstances, to have it deleted;
  3. have the processing of your Personal Data restricted (while we verify or investigate your concerns with this information for example);
  4. object to the further processing in certain circumstances of your Personal Data including the right to object to marketing;
  5. request we move your provided Personal Data elsewhere (data portability);
  6. to withdraw any consent that you have given us if we are processing your Personal Data only because you have given that consent; and
  7. not have your Personal Data automatically processed.

ABAX contact details

If:

  1. you wish to exercise any of you rights in relation to your Personal Data;
  2. you have any complaint about the way in which we process Personal Data; or
  3. you require any further information about this Privacy Statement or its contents,

please contact us in the first instance at: The Data Protection Officer, Abax Corporate Services Ltd, 6th Floor, Tower A, 1 CyberCity, Ebene, Mauritius. Tel: + 230 403 6000. Email: [email protected]

Data protection regulator contact details

If your request or concern is not satisfactorily resolved by us you may approach your local data protection authority in the jurisdiction in which we provide services to you.

The contact details for the data protection regulators in the jurisdictions in which we operate are as follow:

  • Cote d’Ivoire: National Data Protection Authority (Autorité de protection des données à caractère personnel) c/o ARTCI, Marcory Anoumabo, Abidjan or by post to 18 BP 2203 Abidjan 18 – Côte d’Ivoire. Tel: +225 20 34 43 73 / +225 20 34 43 74. Email: [email protected]
  • Dubai: The Data Protection Commissioner, Dubai International Financial Centre Authority, Level 14, The Gate, P.O. Box 74777, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Tel: +971 4 362 2623. Email: [email protected]
  • Mauritius: Data Protection Office, 5th Floor, SICOM Tower, Wall Street, Ebene, Republic of Mauritius. Tel: +(230)460-0251. Email: [email protected]
  • Singapore: Personal Data Protection Commission, 460 Alexandra Road, #10-02 PSA Building, Singapore 119963. Tel: +65 6377 3131. Online: https://www.pdpc.gov.sg/contact
  • South AfricaThe Information Regulator (South Africa), SALU Building, 316 Thabo Sehume Street, Pretoria, South Africa. Tel: +27 (0) 12 406 4818. Email: [email protected]
  • United Kingdom: Information Commissioner’s Office, Wycliffe House, Water Lane, Wilmslow, Cheshire SK9 5AF. Tel: 0303 123 1113 (local rate). Online: https://ico.org.uk/global/contact-us/email/

Updates

We review our policies and procedures regularly and we reserve the right to amend the terms of this Privacy Statement from time to time at our absolute discretion. Any amended Privacy Statement will be posted on our website and you are encouraged to visit our website from time to time to ensure that you are aware of our latest policies in relation to the protection of Personal Data.